You already know why cicadas are so unbelievably noisy. But why do some of them appear aboveground only every 17 years?
The 17-year cicadas are species of periodical cicadas, a group of homopterans with the longest known insect life cycle. The largest brood makes its appearance every 17 years, like clockwork, in the northeastern quarter of the United States. Shortly after a 17-year cicada nymph hatches from its egg, it burrows into the ground, where it spends—as its name suggests—the first 17 years of its life. When it emerges from the ground, it lives only four to six more weeks—just long enough to mate, fertilize or lay eggs, and start the cycle all over again.
Contrary to popular misconception, periodical cicadas don’t spend their years underground in hibernation. Rather, they are conscious and active in their wingless nymph forms, excavating tunnels and feeding on the sap from tree roots.
The cicada nymphs’ emergence from their underground homes is tied primarily to temperature. After their 17 years are up, the cicadas wait for the perfect temperature before making the journey to the surface—when the soil about 8 inches (20 cm) underground reaches 64 °F, or 18 °C. This means that cicadas in different parts of the United States appear at different times: the soil in Virginia might reach that ideal temperature before the soil in Illinois. But once that temperature is reached, all the cicadas in the area will feel it and make the journey to the surface together.
But how do the cicadas know when 17 years have passed? Though no one theory has been proven, many scientists speculate that periodical cicadas possess an internal molecular clock that notes the passage of years through environmental cues. As trees go through their seasonal cycles, shedding and growing leaves, the composition of their sap changes. And when cicada nymphs feed on that sap, they likely pick up clues about the passage of time. The 17th iteration of the trees’ seasonal cycle gives the nymphs their final cue: it’s time to emerge.
When they emerge, the cicadas aren’t yet in their adult form. They’re still nymphs, and they remain so until they molt for the final time. Once their fresh exoskeletons have hardened, they take to the trees with their newfound wings, and the males begin their loud mating calls.
And now we’re back where we started. Newborn cicada nymphs fall or crawl down from the trees where they hatched and burrow into the ground, not to be seen for another 17 years.